By Robert A. Stebbins

ISBN-10: 0773509011

ISBN-13: 9780773509016

For fifteen years, Robert Stebbins has carried out huge learn on amateurs and pros in theatre, song, archaeology, astronomy, baseball, soccer, magic and stand-up comedy. His guides provide the subject matter of significant rest in-depth scholarly consciousness. this article brings jointly the findings of this study undertaking to supply a theoretical framework that finds the commonalities throughout those 8 fields. all through this undertaking Stebbins has equipped at the paintings of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss and their idea of "grounded theory". First, Stebbins widely saw the regimen actions of amateurs and execs in every one box studied. Then, as he grew to become extra conversant in the life-styles of the contributors, he performed long, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with, generally, 30 beginner or expert respondents. each one box demanded specified tools of commentary, research, interviewing, probing and reporting. up to attainable, although, Stebbins requested comparable questions of all respondents in all fields in an effort to allow generalizations throughout those various fields. the outcome used to be a "substantive grounded thought" of every box studied. Stebbins has constructed a "formal grounded conception" of amateurs and execs in keeping with the learn collected in all 8 substantial fields. by means of transcending various contexts, he argues, you can achieve a extra enduring appreciation of the weather that impact peoples' studies in paintings and spare time activities. A evaluation of the findings throughout this wide variety of actions, together with his findings and concepts on hobbyists and occupation volunteers, enabled Stebbins to derive higher definitions of the most techniques of the venture, corresponding to "amateur", "the public", and "serious relaxation" -- in addition to "professional", the place he distinguishes among client-centred and public-centred pros who, whereas sharing various ideal-typical attributes, fluctuate as to the ability and keep watch over they've got over their paintings in a democratic society. He offers inductive conclusions approximately careers and the prices and rewards within the 8 amateur-professional fields thought of. He examines the exterior international of amateurs and execs within the mild of such concerns as relatives ties, relatives between amateurs and execs and between amateurs and their employers, public photographs, critics and reporters, neighborhood contributions, and the query of marginality for amateurs who're stuck among the paintings global of the pro and the informal relaxation international of the vast majority of the inhabitants. He concludes with an exploration of the long run position of significant relaxation on the subject of predictions of larger unemployment and elevated rest time and sturdiness.

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Indeed, how many physicians, lawyers, or schoolteachers would work for the low pay of the typical artist, magician, or basketball player, or, incidentally, for the pure joy of the amateur? Roth (1974,10) criticizes the standards, not to mention the service, component of this attribute, by pointing out that client-centred professionals often give inferior service to minority and deviant groups. His criticism does not apply, however, to public-centred professionals. For example, scientists, artists, entertainers, and athletes who fail to meet set standards will suffer public disfavour and a subsequent lack of patronage.

4 CAREER V O L U N T E E R I N G Van Til (1988,5-9) outlines the essential differences between voluntary action and its subcategory of interest, namely, volunteering, to us as follows: voluntary action is individual action that is uncoerced and not primarily aimed toward financial gain, whereas volunteering is individual or group action that is voluntary and oriented toward helping others or oneself. Bosserman and Gagan (1972,115) and Smith (1975,148) hold that, at the individual level, all leisure activity is voluntary action.

Further, Roth (1974) says that the knowledge base is sometimes inconsistent when, as in medicine for instance, new theories replace old ones. But these observations are irrelevant. It is not the fact of being overtrained, or behind in the appropriate training, that logically or empirically invalidates the proposition that professionals are versed in specialized theory and technique (and, we may now add, widely experienced in applying them). Even if the majority of practising professionals are behind in their knowledge of the latest scientific advances, they are not necessarily lacking expert knowledge, nor is their level of expertise necessarily at the same level as that of the laity.

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Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure by Robert A. Stebbins

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