By Grant E. Isaac
Genetically converted (GM) agricultural vegetation that are authorized as secure in North the United States (Canada and the USA) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in having access to the ecu Union. the advance and commercialization of GM plants illustrate a posh problem dealing with alternate international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created through social regulatory obstacles.
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Additional info for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)
As mentioned above, international economic integration has been the foundation of trade diplomacy since at least the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1948. Trade diplomacy aims to separate economic integration from social integration in order to disentangle political and social market failures from real market failures. According to the WTO, the goal of trade diplomacy – based on the international economic-integration perspective – is to develop multilateral rules to remove social and political protectionism – to depoliticize trade and make it a function of comparative advantage, not political advantage (WTO, 1995).
On the other hand, it has been argued that the social authority of the regulatory jurisdiction is eroded, as nation-states accept limits on their power (Dezalay, 1996; Picciotto, 1996) and adopt an increasingly top-down framework, reflecting the economic perspective, unaccountable to the domestic political process and insensitive to the unique political-economy factors of particular regulatory jurisdictions (Giddens, 1994). Given the ambiguous impact of integration on the policy autonomy of the nation-state, it is important to assess the social rationales for integration: that is, why would international social integration be supported at all?
Global/multilateral II. Regional/bilateral or plurilateral 3. Integration strategy 2. Integration depth Regulatory competition Regulatory coordination Shallow ‘economic’ integration A B Deeper ‘social’ integration C D Fig. 1. Integration parameters of the regulatory jurisdiction. influence the regulatory framework developed (Woolcock, 1998) and this influences the integration approach pursued. Generally, if the regulatory tradition is closely associated with the economic perspective, then it is likely that shallow economic integration based on regulatory competition will be the preferred integration approach (area A in Fig.
Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing) by Grant E. Isaac