By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed vital Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic strategy, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all practical domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of various from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined so far in either the formal potential and the services which have been grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses touching on types and capabilities. The grammar is written in a mode obtainable to linguists operating inside of varied theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel procedure, and a tone procedure. The language has considerable vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 ideas permit the parsing of the clause into parts. The language has 3 kinds of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The damaging paradigms of verbs vary from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and huge procedure of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic relatives in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the article. those arguments can stick with a number of elements. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by means of inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relatives additional to verbs are assorted for various sessions of verbs.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Wandala
He graduated from a lycée in Mora and spent one year in N’Djamena. His other education included one year of management and information technology. Ali Mahamat, about 40 years old at the time of the data-gathering, is the brother of Oumaté Mahamat and has two years of education at the University of Yaoundé. Ramadan Abba was born in 1953 in the Antale neighborhood of Mora. His father and mother were Wandala, his spouse is Wandala, and Wandala is the language spoken at home. In addition to French, he has some knowledge of Fula and Hausa.
The different word orders code the information status of either the predicate or the element whose existence is asserted. Negative existential predication is coded by the form ɓákà following the element whose existence is denied. Possessive predication has the form NP1 án NP2, where NP1 represents the possessor and NP2 the possessum. 14 Aspect There are different aspectual systems in affirmative and negative clauses. In the affirmative clause, the aspectual system distinguishes: the perfective aspect, which has a variety of forms coding the grammatical roles of the following nouns; an imperfective aspect formed with the verbal noun; an imperfective aspect formed through the subject pronoun followed by the reduplicated verbal noun; the backgrounding aspect, which has the form R1ProR2; the punctual aspect, formed with the suffix hè; and the inceptive aspect, formed with the auxiliary tsè.
For the identification of mammals I used Halternoth and Diller 1985, and for insects I used Boorman 1981. The identification of Kanuri borrowings was done with the help of Hutchison 1981, Jarett 2007, and the electronic form of his Kanuri dictionary kindly provided by Norbert Cyffer. For Arabic borrowings, I relied on de Pommerol 1999, and for Fula borrowings I consulted Noye 1989 and Tourneaux and Daïrou 1998. Chapter 2 Phonology 1. The aim of the chapter The aim of the present chapter is to propose an underlying segmental and tonal system for Wandala and rules for the realization of morphemes within an utterance and in isolation.
A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier